BMW

Official website: www.bmw.com
Headquarters: Germany


 

German automobile company, specializing in the production of passenger cars and sports cars, SUVs and motorcycles.

In 1913 on the Northern outskirts of Munich Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto, son of the inventor of the internal combustion engine Nikolaus August Otto, create two small aeroengine companies. The outbreak of the First world war brought many orders for engines for airplanes. RAPP and Otto decide to unite in one aeroengine factory. So in Munich plant appears aircraft engines, which in July 1917, is registered under the name Bayerische Motoren Werke ( Bavarian engine factories) - BMW. This date is considered to be the year of the BMW Foundation, and Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto its creators.

Although the exact date and time of the company establishment and is today a matter of dispute between the automotive historians. And all because officially industrial company BMW was registered on 20 July 1917, but long before that in the same city of Munich there was a lot of companies and associations are also engaged in the development and production of aircraft engines. So, to finally see "roots" BMW, must be transferred to the last century, on the territory existed not so long ago the GDR. It was there 3 December 1886 was "exposed" the involvement of today's BMW car to the case, and there, in the city of Eisenach, in the period from 1928 to 1939 was the headquarters of the company.

One of the local sights of Eisenach became the reason for the appearance of the name of the first machine (the"Wartburg"), uvidivshi light in 1898, after the creation of firm whole series of 3 - and 4-wheeled prototypes.

A very important moment in the history of the BMW company and factory in Eisenach was 1904, when at the Frankfurt motor show have been exposed machine called "Dixy", indicating a good enterprise development and new level of production. There have been two models - "S6" and "S12, the figures in the designation of which pointed to the number of horsepower. (By the way, the model S12" not been withdrawn from the production until 1925.)

 

On the position of chief designer at Bayerische Motoren Werke was invited Max Fritz, who worked at the Daimler factory. Under the leadership of Fritz was made aircraft engine BMW IIIa, who in September 1917 successfully passed bench tests. Equipped with this engine the aircraft at the end of the year set a world record by climbing on 9760 m

Then there was the BMW emblem - a circle, divided into two blue and two white sector, representing a stylized image of a propeller spinning on the background aboucherouane and that blue and white - national zweisel Bavaria.

After the First world war, the company was on the brink of failure, because in the Treaty of Versailles Germans were forbidden to manufacture engines for airplanes, namely engines at the time were the only products of BMW. But entrepreneurial Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto found a way out - the plant began to make the first release of motorcycle engines, and then and motorcycles themselves. In 1923. the BMW factory is the first motorcycle R32. The motorbike salon 1923 in Paris, this is the first BMW motorcycle gained a reputation of a fast and reliable machines, and that was confirmed by the absolute speed records on the international racing 20-ies and 30-ies.

In the early 20-ies in the history of BMW appeared two influential businessmen Gather and Shapiro, one of which went company, falling into the pit of debts and losses. The main cause of the crisis was the underdevelopment of their own automotive manufacturing, along with which the company, by the way, is engaged in production of aircraft engines. And as last, unlike cars, brought the bulk of funds for the existence and development, the BMW found itself in the unenviable position. "Medicine" invented Shapiro, who was on the short leg with English autopromshina Herbert Austin and was able to negotiate with him about the beginning of mass production of Austin in Eisenach. Moreover, the production of these cars was put on the conveyor, which, by that time, except for BMW, could boast only "Daimler-Benz".

The first 100 license Austin, enjoyed incredible success in Britain rolled off the Assembly line in Germany with the right wheel, which for the Germans in a novelty. Later the design was modified in accordance with local requirements and the machine was produced under the title "Dixy". By 1928 there were manufactured more than 15,000 Dixy (read - Austin), which played a decisive role in the revival of BMW. First, it became noticeable in 1925, when Shapiro became interested in production of cars of his own design, and began negotiations with a famous designer and designer Created by Cam. Eventually agreement was reached, and one more talented person was involved in the development of the now famous auto brand. Kamma for several years was engaged in development of new components and assemblies for BMW.

Meanwhile positive for BMW solved a question on approval branded Markiv 1928 firm obtains car factory in Eisenach (Thuringia), and with them the license for the production of small cars Dixi. November 16, 1928 Dixy ceased to exist as a brand name - it was changed for "BMW". Dixi is the first BMW car. In the period of economic difficulties compact car is the most popular car in Europe.

By the beginning of the Second world war, BMW is one of the most dynamically developing companies of the world producing sports oriented machines. It has held several world records: Wolfgang von Gronau on the open sea plane Dornier Wal equipped with BMW engine, crosses the North Atlantic from East to West, Ernst Henne on motorcycle R12, equipped cardan drive, hydraulic shock absorbers and telescopic fork (invention BMW), sets the world speed record for motorcycles - 279,5 km/h, not surpassed by anyone over the next 14 years.

 

The production received a fresh impetus after the conclusion of a secret agreement with Soviet Russia on the delivery of the newest aeroengines. The majority of Soviet record flights in 30-ies have been performed on the aircraft equipped with engines of BMW.

In 1933 began production model 303, the first BMW 6-cylinder engine that debuted at the Berlin motor show. His appearance was a real sensation. This line of "six" with displacement of 1.2 l allowed the machine to move at a speed of 90 km/h and became the basis for many subsequent sports projects BMW. Moreover, it was applied on the new model 303", which became the first in the history of the company, which was established grille with a proprietary design, expressed in the presence of two elongated ovals. "303 " I" model was designed at the plant in Eisenach and differed primarily tubular frame, independent front suspension and good handling characteristics of the reminding of sports. Over two years of production, "BMW 303" the company managed to sell 2,300 cars, which, incidentally, were followed by their "brothers", equipped with more powerful engines and other designations: "309" and 315. In fact, they became the first samples for logical development of the system model designations of the company BMW.

 

Along with all previous cars just look model "326", which appeared at the Berlin motor show in 1936. This four-door car was far from the world of sport, and its rounded design already belonged to the direction, which came into effect in 50-ies. Open top, good quality, elegant salon and a large number of new amendments put "326-Yu" model in a number of Mercedes-Benz, buyers whom were very rich people.

If the mass of 1125 kg model "BMW 326" maximum was accelerated to 115 km/h and consumed 12.5 litres of fuel per 100 kilometers. With similar characteristics and with his appearance, the car has got in the list of the best models of the company and was produced until 1941, when the production volume of the BMW amounted to nearly 16,000 pieces. With the high number of issued and sold a car "BMW 326" was the best pre-war model.

 

Logically, after such a resounding success "325th" model, the next logical step was to appearance made on its basis sports model.

The second world war caused great damage to the car manufacturers from Germany, and the company BMW has been no exception. The plant in Milbertshofen liberators been bombed, and the factory in Eisenach was on the territory controlled by the Russians. So the equipment is partly from there was taken out to Russia as repatriations, and what remained was used for the production of models and "BMW-321" and "BMW-340", which also went to the USSR.

In 1955 began to produce models of R and 50 R 51 opening a new generation of motorcycles with fully sprung chassis, goes minicar «Isetta», a strange symbiosis of a motorcycle with the machine. Three-wheeled car with a door that opens forward movement, was a huge success in the impoverished post-war Germany. At the Frankfurt motor show in 1955 she became the absolute opposite issued at that time models. Tiny BMW-Isetta" reminded their appearance bubble with small fastened Park and side mirrors. Rear transverse distance was much smaller than the front. The model was equipped with a single-cylinder engine capacity of 0.3 liters In capacity 13 PS "Isetta" maximum was accelerated up to 80 km/h

 

Along with the baby "Isetta" company BMW has presented two luxury coupe "503" and "507", created on the basis of sedan 5-series. Both cars were treated at that time, "enough sport", though possessed of "civil" appearance. But because of the ensuing Hobbies large limousines and related losses firm is on the brink of failure. This is the only case in the history of BMW when was incorrectly calculated the economic situation and thrown on the market by the machine had no demand.

Model belonging to the 5-th series, has not improved the position of a BMW in the 50-ies. On the contrary, began to grow rapidly debts decreased sales. To correct this situation, the Bank that provided assistance BMW and was one of the largest shareholders of "Daimler-Benz", proposed to establish factories in Munich, the production is small and not very expensive car "Mercedes-Benz". Thus was threatened the existence of BMW as an independent company that produces original vehicles with their own name and trademark. Against this proposal were active small shareholders of BMW and dealer offices throughout Germany. Joint efforts was collected a certain amount of money needed to develop and start production of the new model BMW middle class, which was to significantly improve the company's position in the 60-ies.

Rebuilding capital structure, BMW able to continue their activities. The third time the company begins all over again. The car of middle class, as it was supposed, was to be the family-machine "average" (and not only) of the Germans. The most suitable variant was considered small, four-door sedan, the 1.5-liter engine and an independent front and rear suspension, which at that time were present not all machines.

To run the car into production in 1961, and then present it at the Frankfurt motor show, it was almost impossible: they simply never had enough time. Therefore, under the pressure of sales Department urgently to the exhibition we developed several prototypes, designed to attract future clients. The bet was made and largely justified. In the exhibition period and over the next few weeks has been made... about 20,000 orders for "BMW 1500"!

In the midst of a production model "1500" small engineering firms began to finalize the car and increase the power of the motor, which, naturally, could not please the leadership of BMW. The response was the release of the model "1800" with a 1.8-liter engine. Moreover, later appeared version of "1800 TI", to correspond with the hire of class " Gran Turismo" and rashodyatsya to 186 km/H. Externally, it is not very much different from the standard version, but, nevertheless, became a worthy addition to an already popolnyaetsya family.

BMW 1800 TI" although it was released in the amount of only 200 copies, still became a very popular model. By 1966 on the base of the machine designers have created a worthy successor - BMW-2000, which is today considered as the father of a 3-series, issued to date in a few generations. At the same compartment with 2-liter engine and 100-120 hidden under the hood "horses" was a subject of special pride of BMW.

 

In fact, the "BMW-2000" in basic and other versions, is one of the most successful models in the history of the company BMW. It takes a long time to count the number that appears, then options of body and power units of different capacities and with different maximum speeds. Together they formed the series, the designation of "02". Its representatives can satisfy almost all motorists who were offered a choice from the most simple and modest compartment to sophisticated high-speed cabriolet with alloy wheels, boxes-"machines and motors 170 "horses".

The last thirty years became for BMW 30th anniversary of victory. Open new factories produced first mass produced Turbomoda «2002-turbo», created anti-lock brake system, which is now all leading automotive manufacturers equip their cars. Developed the first electronic motor control. Almost all brought to the automaker's so much popularity models 60-ies was established four-cylinder engines. However, management BMW still remembered powerful and reliable units, to revive the issue of which is intended to 1968 simultaneously with the release of a new model - BMW-2500". Used in it single-row "castillito"constantly subject to modernization that was carried out over the next 14 years, and has become the basis for a reliable and more powerful 2.8-liter motor. Together with the last four-door sedan has moved into a number of sports cars, because only a few of the serial car in standard equipment could surpass the speed the mark of 200 km/H.

In Munich for building the headquarters of the group, and in Aschheim on the first test polygon. For the design of new models built a research center. In the 1970-ies the first cars of the famous series BMW - model 3 series, 5 series, 6-series, 7-series.

In the year of German reunification concern, founded the company BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, returns to its roots, put on the field Aviamotornaya, and in 1991, represents a new aircraft engine BR-700. In the beginning of 90-ies appear on the market of the sports compact car of the third generation 3 series and coupe 8-series.

A good step for the company was the purchase in 1994 2.3 billion German marks, industrial group Rover Group («Rover Group»), together with the UK's largest complex on release of cars Rover, Land Rover and MG. With the purchase of this company car list BMW has added missing midget cars of class SUV. In 1998 it acquired the British company «rolls-Royce».

From 1995 as a standard feature in all BMW car turns on the airbag for the front passenger and the system anti-theft lock engine. In March of that year started in production station wagon (touring) 3-series.

 

Currently, BMW, which started with a small aeroengine factory, manufactures its products in five German plants and twenty two subsidiaries, scattered around the world. This is one of the few automobile firms that do not use at plants robots. The entire Assembly on the Assembly line is only manually. Output - only computer diagnostics of the main parameters of the car.

In the past 30 years, only concerns BMW and Toyota able to work with annually increasing income. Empire BMW, three times in its history exerted on the verge of collapse, every time rose and reached success. For all in a world concern BMW is synonymous with the highest standards in the field of road safety, technology and quality.


10.01.2017
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