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BMW
09 Of january 2017

Official website: www.bmw.com
Headquarters: Germany


 

German automobile company, specializing in the production of passenger cars and sports cars, SUVs and motorcycles.

In 1913 on the Northern outskirts of Munich Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto, son of the inventor of the internal combustion engine Nikolaus August Otto, create two small aeroengine companies. The outbreak of the First world war brought many orders for engines for airplanes. RAPP and Otto decide to unite in one aeroengine factory. So in Munich plant appears aircraft engines, which in July 1917, is registered under the name Bayerische Motoren Werke ( Bavarian engine factories) - BMW. This date is considered to be the year of the BMW Foundation, and Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto its creators.

Although the exact date and time of the company establishment and is today a matter of dispute between the automotive historians. And all because officially industrial company BMW was registered on 20 July 1917, but long before that in the same city of Munich there was a lot of companies and associations are also engaged in the development and production of aircraft engines. So, to finally see "roots" BMW, must be transferred to the last century, on the territory existed not so long ago the GDR. It was there 3 December 1886 was "exposed" the involvement of today's BMW car to the case, and there, in the city of Eisenach, in the period from 1928 to 1939 was the headquarters of the company.

One of the local sights of Eisenach became the reason for the appearance of the name of the first machine (the"Wartburg"), uvidivshi light in 1898, after the creation of firm whole series of 3 - and 4-wheeled prototypes.

A very important moment in the history of the BMW company and factory in Eisenach was 1904, when at the Frankfurt motor show have been exposed machine called "Dixy", indicating a good enterprise development and new level of production. There have been two models - "S6" and "S12, the figures in the designation of which pointed to the number of horsepower. (By the way, the model S12" not been withdrawn from the production until 1925.)

 

On the position of chief designer at Bayerische Motoren Werke was invited Max Fritz, who worked at the Daimler factory. Under the leadership of Fritz was made aircraft engine BMW IIIa, who in September 1917 successfully passed bench tests. Equipped with this engine the aircraft at the end of the year set a world record by climbing on 9760 m

Then there was the BMW emblem - a circle, divided into two blue and two white sector, representing a stylized image of a propeller spinning on the background aboucherouane and that blue and white - national zweisel Bavaria.

After the First world war, the company was on the brink of failure, because in the Treaty of Versailles Germans were forbidden to manufacture engines for airplanes, namely engines at the time were the only products of BMW. But entrepreneurial Karl RAPP and Gustav Otto found a way out - the plant began to make the first release of motorcycle engines, and then and motorcycles themselves. In 1923. the BMW factory is the first motorcycle R32. The motorbike salon 1923 in Paris, this is the first BMW motorcycle gained a reputation of a fast and reliable machines, and that was confirmed by the absolute speed records on the international racing 20-ies and 30-ies.

In the early 20-ies in the history of BMW appeared two influential businessmen Gather and Shapiro, one of which went company, falling into the pit of debts and losses. The main cause of the crisis was the underdevelopment of their own automotive manufacturing, along with which the company, by the way, is engaged in production of aircraft engines. And as last, unlike cars, brought the bulk of funds for the existence and development, the BMW found itself in the unenviable position. "Medicine" invented Shapiro, who was on the short leg with English autopromshina Herbert Austin and was able to negotiate with him about the beginning of mass production of Austin in Eisenach. Moreover, the production of these cars was put on the conveyor, which, by that time, except for BMW, could boast only "Daimler-Benz".

The first 100 license Austin, enjoyed incredible success in Britain rolled off the Assembly line in Germany with the right wheel, which for the Germans in a novelty. Later the design was modified in accordance with local requirements and the machine was produced under the title "Dixy". By 1928 there were manufactured more than 15,000 Dixy (read - Austin), which played a decisive role in the revival of BMW. First, it became noticeable in 1925, when Shapiro became interested in production of cars of his own design, and began negotiations with a famous designer and designer Created by Cam. Eventually agreement was reached, and one more talented person was involved in the development of the now famous auto brand. Kamma for several years was engaged in development of new components and assemblies for BMW.

Meanwhile positive for BMW solved a question on approval branded Markiv 1928 firm obtains car factory in Eisenach (Thuringia), and with them the license for the production of small cars Dixi. November 16, 1928 Dixy ceased to exist as a brand name - it was changed for "BMW". Dixi is the first BMW car. In the period of economic difficulties compact car is the most popular car in Europe.

By the beginning of the Second world war, BMW is one of the most dynamically developing companies of the world producing sports oriented machines. It has held several world records: Wolfgang von Gronau on the open sea plane Dornier Wal equipped with BMW engine, crosses the North Atlantic from East to West, Ernst Henne on motorcycle R12, equipped cardan drive, hydraulic shock absorbers and telescopic fork (invention BMW), sets the world speed record for motorcycles - 279,5 km/h, not surpassed by anyone over the next 14 years.

 

The production received a fresh impetus after the conclusion of a secret agreement with Soviet Russia on the delivery of the newest aeroengines. The majority of Soviet record flights in 30-ies have been performed on the aircraft equipped with engines of BMW.

In 1933 began production model 303, the first BMW 6-cylinder engine that debuted at the Berlin motor show. His appearance was a real sensation. This line of "six" with displacement of 1.2 l allowed the machine to move at a speed of 90 km/h and became the basis for many subsequent sports projects BMW. Moreover, it was applied on the new model 303", which became the first in the history of the company, which was established grille with a proprietary design, expressed in the presence of two elongated ovals. "303 " I" model was designed at the plant in Eisenach and differed primarily tubular frame, independent front suspension and good handling characteristics of the reminding of sports. Over two years of production, "BMW 303" the company managed to sell 2,300 cars, which, incidentally, were followed by their "brothers", equipped with more powerful engines and other designations: "309" and 315. In fact, they became the first samples for logical development of the system model designations of the company BMW.

 

Along with all previous cars just look model "326", which appeared at the Berlin motor show in 1936. This four-door car was far from the world of sport, and its rounded design already belonged to the direction, which came into effect in 50-ies. Open top, good quality, elegant salon and a large number of new amendments put "326-Yu" model in a number of Mercedes-Benz, buyers whom were very rich people.

If the mass of 1125 kg model "BMW 326" maximum was accelerated to 115 km/h and consumed 12.5 litres of fuel per 100 kilometers. With similar characteristics and with his appearance, the car has got in the list of the best models of the company and was produced until 1941, when the production volume of the BMW amounted to nearly 16,000 pieces. With the high number of issued and sold a car "BMW 326" was the best pre-war model.

 

Logically, after such a resounding success "325th" model, the next logical step was to appearance made on its basis sports model.

The second world war caused great damage to the car manufacturers from Germany, and the company BMW has been no exception. The plant in Milbertshofen liberators been bombed, and the factory in Eisenach was on the territory controlled by the Russians. So the equipment is partly from there was taken out to Russia as repatriations, and what remained was used for the production of models and "BMW-321" and "BMW-340", which also went to the USSR.

In 1955 began to produce models of R and 50 R 51 opening a new generation of motorcycles with fully sprung chassis, goes minicar «Isetta», a strange symbiosis of a motorcycle with the machine. Three-wheeled car with a door that opens forward movement, was a huge success in the impoverished post-war Germany. At the Frankfurt motor show in 1955 she became the absolute opposite issued at that time models. Tiny BMW-Isetta" reminded their appearance bubble with small fastened Park and side mirrors. Rear transverse distance was much smaller than the front. The model was equipped with a single-cylinder engine capacity of 0.3 liters In capacity 13 PS "Isetta" maximum was accelerated up to 80 km/h

 

Along with the baby "Isetta" company BMW has presented two luxury coupe "503" and "507", created on the basis of sedan 5-series. Both cars were treated at that time, "enough sport", though possessed of "civil" appearance. But because of the ensuing Hobbies large limousines and related losses firm is on the brink of failure. This is the only case in the history of BMW when was incorrectly calculated the economic situation and thrown on the market by the machine had no demand.

Model belonging to the 5-th series, has not improved the position of a BMW in the 50-ies. On the contrary, began to grow rapidly debts decreased sales. To correct this situation, the Bank that provided assistance BMW and was one of the largest shareholders of "Daimler-Benz", proposed to establish factories in Munich, the production is small and not very expensive car "Mercedes-Benz". Thus was threatened the existence of BMW as an independent company that produces original vehicles with their own name and trademark. Against this proposal were active small shareholders of BMW and dealer offices throughout Germany. Joint efforts was collected a certain amount of money needed to develop and start production of the new model BMW middle class, which was to significantly improve the company's position in the 60-ies.

Rebuilding capital structure, BMW able to continue their activities. The third time the company begins all over again. The car of middle class, as it was supposed, was to be the family-machine "average" (and not only) of the Germans. The most suitable variant was considered small, four-door sedan, the 1.5-liter engine and an independent front and rear suspension, which at that time were present not all machines.

To run the car into production in 1961, and then present it at the Frankfurt motor show, it was almost impossible: they simply never had enough time. Therefore, under the pressure of sales Department urgently to the exhibition we developed several prototypes, designed to attract future clients. The bet was made and largely justified. In the exhibition period and over the next few weeks has been made... about 20,000 orders for "BMW 1500"!

In the midst of a production model "1500" small engineering firms began to finalize the car and increase the power of the motor, which, naturally, could not please the leadership of BMW. The response was the release of the model "1800" with a 1.8-liter engine. Moreover, later appeared version of "1800 TI", to correspond with the hire of class " Gran Turismo" and rashodyatsya to 186 km/H. Externally, it is not very much different from the standard version, but, nevertheless, became a worthy addition to an already popolnyaetsya family.

BMW 1800 TI" although it was released in the amount of only 200 copies, still became a very popular model. By 1966 on the base of the machine designers have created a worthy successor - BMW-2000, which is today considered as the father of a 3-series, issued to date in a few generations. At the same compartment with 2-liter engine and 100-120 hidden under the hood "horses" was a subject of special pride of BMW.

 

In fact, the "BMW-2000" in basic and other versions, is one of the most successful models in the history of the company BMW. It takes a long time to count the number that appears, then options of body and power units of different capacities and with different maximum speeds. Together they formed the series, the designation of "02". Its representatives can satisfy almost all motorists who were offered a choice from the most simple and modest compartment to sophisticated high-speed cabriolet with alloy wheels, boxes-"machines and motors 170 "horses".

The last thirty years became for BMW 30th anniversary of victory. Open new factories produced first mass produced Turbomoda «2002-turbo», created anti-lock brake system, which is now all leading automotive manufacturers equip their cars. Developed the first electronic motor control. Almost all brought to the automaker's so much popularity models 60-ies was established four-cylinder engines. However, management BMW still remembered powerful and reliable units, to revive the issue of which is intended to 1968 simultaneously with the release of a new model - BMW-2500". Used in it single-row "castillito"constantly subject to modernization that was carried out over the next 14 years, and has become the basis for a reliable and more powerful 2.8-liter motor. Together with the last four-door sedan has moved into a number of sports cars, because only a few of the serial car in standard equipment could surpass the speed the mark of 200 km/H.

In Munich for building the headquarters of the group, and in Aschheim on the first test polygon. For the design of new models built a research center. In the 1970-ies the first cars of the famous series BMW - model 3 series, 5 series, 6-series, 7-series.

In the year of German reunification concern, founded the company BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, returns to its roots, put on the field Aviamotornaya, and in 1991, represents a new aircraft engine BR-700. In the beginning of 90-ies appear on the market of the sports compact car of the third generation 3 series and coupe 8-series.

A good step for the company was the purchase in 1994 2.3 billion German marks, industrial group Rover Group («Rover Group»), together with the UK's largest complex on release of cars Rover, Land Rover and MG. With the purchase of this company car list BMW has added missing midget cars of class SUV. In 1998 it acquired the British company «rolls-Royce».

From 1995 as a standard feature in all BMW car turns on the airbag for the front passenger and the system anti-theft lock engine. In March of that year started in production station wagon (touring) 3-series.

 

Currently, BMW, which started with a small aeroengine factory, manufactures its products in five German plants and twenty two subsidiaries, scattered around the world. This is one of the few automobile firms that do not use at plants robots. The entire Assembly on the Assembly line is only manually. Output - only computer diagnostics of the main parameters of the car.

In the past 30 years, only concerns BMW and Toyota able to work with annually increasing income. Empire BMW, three times in its history exerted on the verge of collapse, every time rose and reached success. For all in a world concern BMW is synonymous with the highest standards in the field of road safety, technology and quality.


Comments: 0 Views: 9 Group: Auto
Audi
09 Of january 2017

Official website: www.audi.com
Headquarters: Germany


 

Audi (Audi) is a German company specializing in the production of passenger cars. Part of the concern «Volkswagen».

The company "AUDI" was founded in 1909 by August Horch. Its origins go to a non-existent now, but not less known in the past the company Horch, starring at the German sky during the third Reich. In 1899 the talented inventor August Horch founded in Mannheim company "Horch and Company", which is 4 years moved in Zwickau. In 1909 he built a new 6-cylinder engine, which was not a success, and was almost brought the firm to the brink of bankruptcy, which was enraged by his companions, who decided to deal with the inventor and to banish him from her own firm. But Horch immediately close founded another company, which, of course, also bore the name "Horch". His former companions, feeling in the young firm is strong competitor, August Horch in court with the demand to change the company name. According to the court, the new enterprise on release of cars could not bear the name Horch, and August Horch appealed to the Latinized version of the former names: the word horch, German meaning “look”, AUDI became. So in 1909 was born the famous trade mark and the no less famous company AUDI.

His first car under the name AUDI-A was released in 1910. The following year, followed the model AUDI-Century Three such machines Horch exhibited in June 1911 the first races Autologous of Alpenfest in the Austrian Alps length of about 2500 km, which replaced the famous race for the prize of the German Prince Henry.

In 1912 appeared the most famous model of the AUDI - S. In the same year her first samples have passed a serious test for the next Alpine races and achieved good results, for which the hire series was called "Alpensee" or "Conqueror of the Alps". In 20-ies the company AUDI was on the brink of bankruptcy. She had to merge with another firm. In 1928 the company was acquired by the German DKW, the owner of AUDI became the Jorgen Skaft Rasmussen. In 1932 the economic crisis has prompted a number of German companies to the creation of group Auto Union. It included along with DKW and Wanderer former firm rivals "Horch and AUDI. The group released two models with front-wheel drive and the engine Wanderer. Cars sold well until the beginning of the Second world war.

After the Second world war, AUDI and other firms-partners of the Auto Union were nationalized. They were reorganised in a division of the national Association of enterprises producing vehicles".

In 1949 Auto Union was reformed by attracting a majority of the shares of the company Mercedes-Benz.

 

In 1958 Mercedes-Benz acquired a controlling stake in the Auto Union, but then sold them Volkswagen. After the transition in 1965. the control packet of shares to Volkswagen, began to apply the name AUDI. Shortly after this event, was released a new car with front-wheel drive, and by the end of 1968. AUDI's return to the market, with a good range of models and excellent sales statistics. As the emblem were saved four of the circle, symbolizing the incident in 1932 the merger of four companies.

Model "100", appeared on the market in 1968, and its followers, including the famous Audi Quattro was different sports profile and drive on all four wheels, which was a new milestone in the automotive industry in Germany. It Quattro model, introduced in 1980, gave a powerful impulse to development of motor industry and has brought us AUDI, a subsidiary of Volkswagen, the world fame. It was easy, fast car "Gran Turismo" with great stability, the type of vehicle for rallying. Competitors it was difficult to compete with this Quattro rally. Model exclusively performed well in several races.

In 1969 Volkswagen bought Neckarsulmer Automobilwerke. As a result, the company name has changed, the firm was named Audi NSU Auto Union, and in the summer of 1985 the company's name was changed again in AUDI AG.

From 1970 to begin export of Audi in the United States. First, exports to the U.S. were limited Audi Super 90 (sedan and wagon)and the new Audi 100. Since 1973 he joined Audi 80. which, in contrast to European options, existed as a generalist Audi 80 (actually VW Passat Variant with a higher level of integration). Later models Audi has been on the U.S. market their own designations: Audi 4000 for Audi 80. Audi 5000 for the Audi 100. However, repeated violations of the producer's responsibility for its products from the mid-1990s led to a decline in deliveries of AUDI in the USA.

 

In 1980 all-wheel-drive sports coupe has attracted much attention on the Audi stand at the Geneva motor show. First automobile-wheel-drive, high-power car was offered in the form of the Audi quattro concept of a full drive, till now used only in trucks and SUVs. The idea of such passenger car appeared in the winter of 1976/77 during the trial races are being developed for the Bundeswehr 4WD VW Iltis. Excellent behavior of the car when driving on ice and snow led to the idea to implement a full drive VW Iltis in serial AUDI 80. Also developed a version of the increased power is presented in the autumn of 1979 five-cylinder turbo engine 2.2 liter capacity of 147 kW / 200 HP

In 1982 Audi 80 quattro has launched the large-scale manufacture of a constant full drive. Gradually quattro concept was offered for the other series models of the AUDI.

Based on the AUDI 80 was produced sports coupe (Audi Coupe), which debuted in late 1993. Version with a body convertible for the first time was presented in Geneva in 1991. This veteran of the family AUDI in the middle of 2000 was discontinued. Since 1992 they have been made about 72 thousand pieces

In December 1990, was presented the new AUDI 100 (internal designation C4), which for the first time in the history of the enterprise was offered also with a six-cylinder engine V-shaped. Compact (128 kW. 174 HP) HP engine with working volume of the engine 2.8 litre was the shortest and lightest in their class.

AUDI A4 is the successor to the AUDI 80, produced in 1986-1994 the First was submitted in October 1994. The year 2001 saw the light of the universal A4 Avant and coupe-cabriolet A4 Cabrio, which will receive a folding hard-top roof (as Mercedes-Benz SLK) and, obviously, will be assembled at the plant of the company Karmann.

The Audi A8 is the flagship of the AUDI for the first time was shown in February 1994 In may 1994 was presented to the audience a five RS2 Avant with a 2.2-liter 315-strong injection turbo engine.

 

The Audi A3 is created on the platform of Golf IV. The first show of the models was held in June 1996. Production of the AUDI A3 began in 1997.

The AUDI A6 was first presented with a sedan, Geneva motor show in 1997. In February 1998, was represented in the model A6 Avant station wagon. All models C4 platform was removed from production in the summer of 1997 in connection with the development of a completely new A6 (4B-type).

Since the show conceptual Audi A2 in the autumn of 1997, before the serial production (beginning of 2000) model A2 a little more than two years. So at AUDI's new family of cars of the European dimension of the class b

AUDI S4/S4 Avante/RS4, high-power sports modification AUDI A4 engine 2.7 V6 Biturbo. For the first time was presented at the motor show in Frankfurt in 1997. In 1999 was presented modification RS4 Avante engine 2.7 V6 Biturbo (380 HP).

Sports car AUDI TT with the coupe was first presented in Geneva in September 1998, with the body Roadster - in August 1999. The prototype model was introduced in 1995 at the motor show in Frankfurt / main.

 

AUDI S3, sports modification AUDI A3 with engine 1.8 20V turbo engine and all-wheel drive transmission with high capacity. Was first introduced in March 1999.

AUDI S8, high-power sports modification AUDI A8 engine 4.2 V8 Quattro drive. Was first shown at the beginning of 1998.

AUDI Allroad, model SUV based on the A6 Avant, was first presented in February 2000.

Now AUDI , which is an integral part of Volkswagen, is experiencing rapid growth. This success became possible thanks to new developments of the company.


Comments: 0 Views: 7 Group: Auto
Alfa Romeo
09 Of january 2017

Official website: www.alfaromeo.com
Headquarters: Italy





«Alfa Romeo» (Alfa Romeo S.p.A, an Italian industrial company specializing in the production of sports of high-end cars, and other vehicles. The headquarters is located in Milan.

The company history began in 1906 in the village of Portello near Milan society was established Societa Italiana Automobili Darracq, intending to collect French light vehicles «Darracq.» The head of the society stood Ugo Stella. Light vehicles in Italy was not popular and Stella decided to reorganize the only plant «Society» in the original production of Italian cars. For instance, in 1910 company appeared A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica di Automobili), i.e., «Lombard joint stock company for car production».

 

In 1910 Stella invited engineer J.. MAROSI, who previously worked in the Fiat, which created her first child - outdoor quintuple 24CV capacity of 42 HP It less powerful modification 12CV had a capacity of 22 PS These models and became the basis of pre-war production firm ALFA.

On the chassis base of the sports models did racing modifications: 12CV successfully took part in prestigious competitions, in Modena.

The first world war halted production, but in 1915 the company moves to Nicola Romeo, who after the war resumes production of cars based on a new 4-cylinder engine. Romeo gave the company its harmonious and easy-to-remember name.

A great success was the victory of Alfa P2 on the first world championship race cars (Motor Racing Championship) in 1925. It is in the 20-ies of the racing cars firms become famous worldwide.

Faced in the late 1920-ies with financial difficulties due to the collapse of several banks Italy, the company has found support abroad : in England, the United States, Spain.

In 1933, the company was nationalized, its management began a special Committee called the IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale) and elected from shareholders and employees of the company in the ratio 50 on 50. «Alfa Romeo» continues issue expensive and prestigious sports racing cars, but at the same time the company is entrusted with the production of military trucks and engines for aviation. The production of engines almost completely displaces the production of cars during the Second world war.

After the war the company launches a new model, designed before the war «Golden arrow» (Alfa Romeo 6C Golden Arrow), izgotovleniya using aluminum alloys. The huge success of the model made it possible in short periods to restore the destructions caused by war.

In 1950-ies the company's management Board invited the engineer Ocati, before which the task was to combine in a single model quality family and race car. This became Alfa Romeo Ti and its advanced versions Ti Sprint Coupe and Ti Sprint Super Sport.

The new plant in Arese received a start in life to the model of «Julia» (Giulia Sprint GT) with a body of type «cabriolet».

In the 70-ies of the new word in the automotive industry has become a front-wheel-drive model Alfasud («Alfasud»), gathered at the enterprises in Pomigliano, near Naples.

From 1982 «Alfa Romeo» cooperates closely with «Nissan», creating a model of «Arna» (Arna), which combine features of «Datsun cherry» (Datsun Cherry) and «Alfasud».

 

Since 1986, the company became part of the FIAT group. Sports and functional style Alfa Romeo saved in the model Alfa Spider unusual greedily, streamlined silhouette.

The emergence of the new flagship from Milan's famous brand Alfa Romeo 164 , even with the body of the Pininfarina, created a sensation at the Frankfurt motor show in 1987. For the first time the company has flashed originality. Although rapid and streamlined sedan (CX=0.3) glimpsed some signs of involvement (form door to the big European platform tipo fore", which was jointly developed by Alfa Romeo, FIAT and 8MB, in the General opinion, pripadnicima Alfa Romeo 164 became the most successful in design.

The first show of the models 145 (three-door body) was held in July 1994, 146 (five-door body) - in December 1994. This is the model of middle class cars with a transverse engine and front-wheel drive.

In January 1999 - the complete modernization of the model.

In September 2000 model rolled off the conveyor, giving way to models Alfa Romeo 147.

ALFA ROMEO GTV/Spider, models of sport cars and coupe and spider with a transverse engine and front-wheel drive, a joint development with firm Pininfarina were first shown in 1994 in Paris.

From November 1996 on GTV installed a new engine 3.0 V6 from may 1998 - the new engine 1.8 TS 16v, with variable valve timing, as well as a modified version of the engine 2.0 TS 16v.

In the autumn of 1998 has been a change in the design of cars.

Sedan Alfa Romeo 156 (Juliet) in 1997 was named «car of the year» in Europe. «Alfa Romeo» is famous for its sport achievements.

In 1999 optional Alfa 156 2.0 replenished Pyatigorsky automatic transmission Selespeed technology Formula One, and Alfa 156 2.5 V6 received automatic Q-System. Developed in accordance with the technical training program fireballs Scuderia Ferrari, the CPT Alfa 156 has the same characteristics as transmission car F399 Michael Schumacher.

 

ALFA ROMEO 166, type of vehicle of category E with a transverse engine and front-wheel drive, the successor model 164, was first featured in the autumn of 1998

ALFA ROMEO 147 was first presented on autoshow in Turin on 8 June 2000 by a European jury has assigned Alfa Romeo 47 title of «Car of the year 2001».

In 2006, Alfa Romeo has celebrated its centenary.


Comments: 0 Views: 19 Group: Auto